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Balkans in WW1

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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #25 on: Jul 28, 2018, 11:13:19 am »
 

Al Bundy

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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #26 on: Jul 28, 2018, 04:01:21 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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1918: Serbian flag on White House














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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #27 on: Sep 06, 2018, 06:48:26 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #28 on: Oct 17, 2018, 06:24:55 am »
 

Al Bundy

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Serbia before Great war.
I recommend this clip to the forum visitors, because in a few minutes, a man has told Serbian history in which I have nothing to add.











It's the Special Edition of the Great War because he realized that WW1 did not start on 6/28 1914 than there are causes. Perhaps the Great War could have been avoided, but the Austro-Hungarian attack on Serbia can not be avoided.



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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #29 on: Oct 18, 2018, 04:44:43 am »
 

EvadingGrid

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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #30 on: Oct 29, 2018, 10:54:17 am »
 

Al Bundy

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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #31 on: Nov 02, 2018, 03:13:07 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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100 years ago, without resistance, the Serbian Army entered the capital of Serbia - Belgrade.


Serbian Crown Prince Aleksandar Karadjordjevic in free Belgrade 1918.



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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #32 on: Nov 04, 2018, 07:18:28 am »
 

Al Bundy

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Scandal in Church Notre Dame : flag of "Republic of Kosovo" with flags of counties who participates in victory in WW1  :o :o



Le drapeau du #Kosovo flotte pour la première fois dans Notre-Dame de Paris — dans le cadre des commémorations du Centenaire de la fin de la Première Guerre mondiale. pic.twitter.com/F2Ug7bo2QA
— Qëndrim R. Gashi (@qendrimrgashi) November 2, 2018



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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #33 on: Nov 07, 2018, 05:47:47 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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Scandal in Church Notre Dame : flag of "Republic of Kosovo" with flags of counties who participates in victory in WW1  :o :o



Le drapeau du #Kosovo flotte pour la première fois dans Notre-Dame de Paris — dans le cadre des commémorations du Centenaire de la fin de la Première Guerre mondiale. pic.twitter.com/F2Ug7bo2QA
— Qëndrim R. Gashi (@qendrimrgashi) November 2, 2018



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Serbia won't react to WW1 ceremony scandal in France - FM

Serbia will not lodge a protest with France over the displaying of the flag of Kosovo at the Notre-Dame cathedral, said Foreign Minister Ivica Dacic.

Source: B92, Beta, Tanjug Tuesday, November 6, 2018 | 09:55


Dacic explained the absence of any official reaction of Belgrade by the announced visit to Serbia by the French president.

"Bearing in mind the upcoming visit by Emmanuel Macron, the first visit of a French president to Serbia after 18 years, it is my opinion is that this should be left for discussion," Dacic told Belgrade-based daily Politika.

The head of Serbian diplomacy rated the showing of the Kosovo flag at the Notre-Dame as "generally a big scandal because there is no military parade where the defeated participate as well."

"We cannot stop this, but we can have better relations with Paris, that's why the upcoming visit by Emmanuel Macron is extremely important," Dacic said, adding that he does not know "how (Kosovo President Hashim) Thaci accepted the invitation to participate (in the ceremony in France marking the allied victory 100 years ago in WW1) - which is a day of mourning for him."

The flag of Kosovo found itself at the church in Paris among the symbols of 86 states and 11 international organizations.

Speaking for TV Prva earlier on Monday, Dacic said:
"We cannot stop it. They put the flags of other defeated sides there as well. I generally think that this is a scandal because there are no parades to celebrate victories where the defeated are present too. I do not know how Thaci accepted it because it's a day of mourning (for them). They lost, were on the wrong side (in WW1). They will fight against them again."

Kosovo is Serbia's southern province where ethnic Albanians in 2008 unilaterally declared independence - recognized by France and other leading Western powers, but rejected by Serbia as a violation of its sovereignty and territorial integrity.

List of invitees

The management of the Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris said on Monday that the flag of Kosovo was displayed in front of it based on a list of those invited to next Sunday’s commemoration to mark the end of World War 1, Beta said, citing AFP.
An unnamed Notre-Dame spokesperson said the decision was taken based on a list of officials invited by the French government.

"Notre-Dame takes no stand and is not involved in diplomacy," the spokesperson said.

https://www.b92.net/eng/news/politics.php?yyyy=2018&mm=11&dd=06&nav_id=105453



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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #34 on: Nov 11, 2018, 11:00:52 am »
 

Al Bundy

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Exodus of Serbian Army and civilians from Serbia.











All Serbs will die in Albania if not was ultimatum of Russian Czar Nikolai II Romanov to Allies in January 1916. "If France, Italy and France do not evacuate Serbian Army ans Serbian refugees from Albania, Russia will make separate peace with Central Powers."
How did one historian miss it?  :-[

https://russkiymir.ru/en/publications/139492/



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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #35 on: Nov 21, 2018, 09:25:38 am »
 

Al Bundy

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Serbian ( Chetnik" ) Uprising against Bulagarina occupation in southeast Serbia in 1917.













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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #36 on: Jan 14, 2019, 02:10:53 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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Caricature of Capitulation of Montenegro in January 1916. Coward King Nikola Petrovic leave the country and never go back.





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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #37 on: Jan 21, 2019, 05:05:11 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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On the present day in 1916, from exile in Italy, the king of Montenegro, Nikola Petrovic, ordered the dissolution of the Montenegrin army, that is, the capitulation to Austro-Hungarian, German, Turkish, Bulgarian ...

Serbia refused capitulation, and the Army in Albania waited for an allied evacuation.



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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #38 on: Jan 22, 2019, 04:22:56 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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On this day 1876 in Nether Poppleton, Yorkshire was born Flora Sandes. British military nurse was born and later a officer of the Serbian Army.

Flora Sandes was the only British woman to officially fight on the front line in World War One.



https://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofBritain/Flora-Sandes/



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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #39 on: Jul 12, 2019, 06:03:34 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #40 on: Sep 07, 2019, 02:42:46 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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Re: Great War
« Reply #41 on: Sep 08, 2019, 05:21:07 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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Number of victims in WW1  :(













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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #42 on: Sep 09, 2019, 11:23:57 am »
 

EvadingGrid

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Lions lead by Donkeys

The popular view is that the Generals of The Great War sent the soldiers to their deaths while drinking champagne miles from the Front Line. This is simply not true.

78 British and Dominion officers of the rank of Brigadier General and above died on active service in the First World War while a further 146 were wounded.

The numbers are similar for the Germans and other countries.



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The problem is the virus called the Illuminati.
 

Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #43 on: Sep 09, 2019, 12:18:56 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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Lions lead by Donkeys

The popular view is that the Generals of The Great War sent the soldiers to their deaths while drinking champagne miles from the Front Line. This is simply not true.

78 British and Dominion officers of the rank of Brigadier General and above died on active service in the First World War while a further 146 were wounded.

The numbers are similar for the Germans and other countries.



Last Edit by Palmerston

I did not know that. I do not know how many high rank Serbian officers died or wounded in the combat.  :-[ But I will find out.

I now that British Royal Dynasty change the name during WW1 but I do not know any go to front line ?
I am asking that because Russian Czar Nikolay II Romanov go the front line and command the troops from 1916.
https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-tsar-nicholas-ii-of-russia-at-the-front-line-in-world-war-one-1916-76392476.html

Old Serbian King Petar I and his sons former Crown Prince Djordje and Regent Aleksandar Karadjordjevic were almost always on the front line
and be with Serbian Army and Serbian Refugees.


King Petar the First lead the Serbian retreat in Albania in 1916



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Re: Great War
« Reply #44 on: Sep 13, 2019, 02:58:16 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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The Largest Battle in WW1: Battle on Somme 1916

The fighting at the Somme cost the British approximately 420,000 casualties ( under command Field Marshal Haig ) , while the French incurred 200,000. German losses numbered around 500,000 ( 650 000 ? ) for only 7 miles advance.

https://www.thoughtco.com/battle-of-the-somme-2361413



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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #45 on: Sep 15, 2019, 03:32:47 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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9/15/1918 Dobro Polje ( today Republic of North Macedonia )













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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #46 on: Sep 16, 2019, 05:00:08 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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More Serbian heroines













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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #47 on: Oct 01, 2019, 10:41:19 am »
 

Al Bundy

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THE FIRST FIGHTING AIRCRAFT IN HISTORY BRING DOWN BY SERBIAN SOLDIER BEFORE 104 YEARS

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This was done above Kragujevac by Serbian soldier Radoje Ljutovac.

The date that Ljutovac knocked down the German / Austro-Hungarian plane - September 30, was taken for glory by the Anti-Aircraft Artillery of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia ( Tito's Communists took another date), and today it is celebrated as the Day of the Air Force Artillery and Missile For Air Forces of the Serbian Armed Forces.

During the First World War, Serbian artilleryman Radoje "Raka" Ljutovac entered the history of aviation as the first man to fire a plane when he fired from a field cannon from Metino brdo near Kragujevac. His feat is all the more significant if one considers the fact that Serbia did not have organized anti-aircraft artillery at that time, and the appearance of German aircraft forced the Serbian Army to improvise its defense.

That is why masters in the Kragujevac Military Factory trophy field cannons captured in the Balkan wars (1912-1913) mounted on round wooden platforms and placed them on a nearby hill to defend the city.
The bombs thrown from the aircraft caused extensive damage and killed many people, and then on September 30, a soldier from the First Platoon, Radivoje Ljutovac, sighted three planes circling above the city. He aimed, fired and became famous.

Radivoje later recounted the event to his great-grandson Zvonimir Ljutovac:
"My hand trembled so I shouldn't miss. I put a tip on the balls. I made a cross and aimed through the tube, leading the cannon as the plane flies, overflowing from, perhaps, two fields of plane length. Then I fired - that's it "said Raka.

Raka's shot brought real turmoil among the remaining enemy planes, which were left unmanaged and, surprised by the fire from the ground, disappeared from the sky above Kragujevac.

There was great joy in Serbian positions. The plane fell into the city center, not far from the house where the Supreme Command headquarters and Crown Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic were located, and a bomb had previously fallen in front of it.

R. As a reward, Ljutovac received a horse from the commander and galloped to the crash site of the Austro-Hungarian plane. The assembled people had already met him there.
When he arrived, he got off his horse and saluted the missing German pilots. These were Captain-Scout Kurt von Schaeffer and Officer Candidate Otto Kirsch.

The unbelievability of his feat is also evidenced by the fact that French officers did not immediately believe that the plane had been hit from the first platoon. However, the wreck was transferred to the Military Technical Institute. Engineers examined it and found a scrap in the crankshaft, which was evidence that the plane had been hit.

Ljutovac later, as a soldier, reached the Thessaloniki Front, where he was promoted to Sergeant, and for his merits in the Great War he was awarded the Karadjordje Star with Swords, the Albanian Memorial Medal and the War Memorial for Liberation and Unification 1914-1918. years.

The Ljutovac family donated decorations to the Krusevac National Museum along with some other personal Raka's items.

Kragujevac, which was the center of the military industry, attacked squadrons of the then Austro-Hungarian armies on 19 occasions in 1915.

When he removed his uniform, the world's first anti-aircraft operator, Radoje Ljutovac, opened a shop in Trstenik and spent the rest of his life modestly. He died at the age of 81, on November 25, 1968.



http://www.srna.rs/novosti/725803/prvi-avion-u-istoriji-oborio-srpski-vojnik-prije-104-godine.htm



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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #48 on: Oct 02, 2019, 01:53:05 pm »
 

Al Bundy

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BULARIAN OCCUPATION OF SERBIA AND WAR CRIMES 1916-1918

In his new book about the Balkans during World War One, historian Milovan Pisarri explores the crimes committed against Serbian civilians by Bulgarian military occupiers.
Milovan Pisarri’s new book ‘On the Balkan Front: War and Crimes against the Civilian Population in Serbia 1914-1918’, looks at civilian deaths in Serbia under Bulgarian occupation during World War I, which he argues is a neglected topic by both Serbian and European historians.

“When it comes to WWI in Serbia and Europe, historians mostly dealt with military, political and diplomatic history - battles, causes of the war and political agreements,” Pisarri explained in an interview with BIRN.

“The only picture we in Europe had about WWI is the one of soldiers in trenches,” he added.

The first studies focusing on civilian deaths appeared in the 1990s, he said, when it was realised that “civilians were the target of specific policies, not just collateral damage”.

The central topic of Pisarri’s book, which he developed out of his PhD thesis and which was originally published in Italian, is crimes against Serbian civilians in the part of the Kingdom of Serbia that was occupied by Bulgaria in 1915. The book will be issued in a Serbian translation this autumn.

But he also devotes parts of the book to other major events of the Great War, such as the typhus outbreak which killed some 70,000 civilians, the Serbian army’s retreat through Albania as well as international peace conferences and the issue of refugees, the 1912-13 Balkan wars and civilian casualties on all sides.

Pisarri argues that the First Balkan War – which saw the demise of Ottoman Turkish power in the Balkan states – led to violence, looting and massacres against Muslims by Bulgarian, Serbian and Greek troops and guerrillas across the region.

The Second Balkan War, which saw the conflict between Serbians and Greeks on the one side and Bulgarians on the other, saw atrocities committed by all sides.

But the book focuses on crimes committed in the parts of the Kingdom of Serbia that were under the occupation of Bulgaria, which was one of the Central Powers during WWI, alongside Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. At roughly the same time, extensive crimes against civilians were also being committed in parts of Serbia that were under Austro-Hungarian occupation.

During the war, Bulgaria held the eastern and southern parts of Serbia, two-thirds of Kosovo and part of Macedonia.

Pisarri argues that Bulgaria had one major aim – the permanent annexation of these territories and the Bulgarisation of the domestic population.

“Bulgarian politics in eastern and southern Serbia and Macedonia is a very well organised one. We talk about Bulgarisation, which permeates all segments of society: administration, army, church and education,” he said.

So when the Bulgarian army entered Serbia in 1915, he said, one of the first steps was the liquidation of the Serbian intelligentsia, which included teachers, merchants and priests, or “everyone who Bulgarians perceived as guardians of the Serbian national spirit”.

“In some of the documents I used in the book, it is sometimes stated they [the Serbian intelligentsia] should be killed at once, while sometimes there were orders they should be deported and put into concentration camps instead,” Pisarri said.

At the same time, Bulgarian institutions were introduced in the occupied territories.

“When Serbian teachers were liquidated, they brought in teachers from Bulgaria, introduced Bulgarian and banned Serbian, and changed people’s surnames. The same was happening with the church: they brought in Bulgarian priests and introduced a new calendar, respected by the Bulgarian Orthodox Church,” he explained.

One of the most interesting documents Pisarri found relates to Serbian women, who were listed as second most dangerous enemies, after priests, who needed to be kept under be strict control.

The paper dated to May 1918, “when it was already clear Bulgarians were about to lose the war and when their population was starving, they were still dealing with the assimilation of Serbs”.

“When I first came across the paper, I was confused – why women?” Pisarri asked.

“The reason lies in their pedagogical functions, as by singing Serbian songs and lullabies to children, they are guardians of the Serbian national spirit,” he said.


Serbian refugees waiting for food, circa 1915-1916. Photo: Wikimedia Commons/Paul Jeftich/Photographer unknown.

Armoured trains and concentration camps

During and after WWI, several national and international commissions were established with the aim of documenting crimes and identifying the perpetrators ahead of the Paris peace conference in 1919, at which the victorious Allied Powers met to set terms for the defeated Central Powers.

One of those was Inter-Allied Commission, made up of both national and international experts, which was set up by the Serbian government in November 1918 in the Macedonian city of Skopje. One of the prominent experts involved was Swiss criminologist Archibald Reiss.

“They collected and analysed a large number of documents, including the ones issued by Bulgarians, and had victims’ testimonies as well as photos. That’s how we learned about the camps,” Pisarri said.

“We often connect train deportations to WWII, but that was also happening in WWI – armoured trains carrying unknown number of people, a lot of them dead as they were travelling with no food and water and in awful conditions, including women and children,” he added.

The first camps in Bulgaria were set up in the end of 1915 and in the beginning of 1916. However, most of them were established after the Toplica Uprising, in which Serbian guerrilla forces clashed with the Bulgarian occupiers from February to March 1917.

As the uprising was successfully suppressed, several thousand Serbian civilians were brutally executed, while even more were transferred to camps in Bulgaria – sometimes even forced to walk there on foot, Pisarri said.

“I managed to reconstruct the events and made a small map of 18 camps on Bulgarian territory. I remember from the testimonies that the camp Sliven [in the eastern part of the country] was among the most horrible ones, where several thousand captives lived in barracks, without roof or bed, often without water, and were submitted to forced labour,” Pisarri said.

However, there is still no exact figure for the number of people sent to camps during the occupation, although some estimates go up to 100,000.

Apart from deportations, there were numerous reports of rapes, torture and mass graves.

One of the places hit particularly hard was a small town of Surdulica near Nis in southern Serbia, where there was a killing site, said Pisarri.

“Columns of captured people passed through Surdulica on the way to Bulgaria and there are testimonies describing how Bulgarians would execute the entire group of people or parts of it. [Swiss criminologist] Reiss was on the spot when the mass graves were being exhumed,” he said.

Serbian Refugees waiting for food


The question of responsibility

Even though crimes against civilians were taking place from the very onset of WWI, international law at the time was not adequately equipped to cope with what was happening, Pisarri explained. The Hague peace conferences of 1899 and 1907 did bring about a codification of the customs and laws of war, but they only vaguely applied to civilians.

That is why, after the end of the war, an international commission was constituted at the Paris Peace Conference, with the aim of defining the crimes and punishing the responsible ones. The Commission on the Responsibility of the Authors of the War and on Enforcement of Penalties codified 32 classes of crimes against the laws of war and humanity, such as massacres, rapes, deportations, internments, tortures, deliberated starvation, forced labour and systematic terrorism.

“When we take the list and check where the crimes were taking place, we will see Serbia as a victim and Bulgaria as a perpetrator a lot,” said Pisarri.

Out of the 32 codified crimes, the Bulgarian army committed 18 of them against the Serbian civilian population, he argued.

Despite the initial willingness to prosecute the perpetrators, only a small number of killers were convicted and given symbolic sentences by their respective countries.

“Serbia made a list of all the perpetrators, including the names of 500 Bulgarians. Bulgaria prosecuted only three of them, one of whom died by the time the court process started,” he said.

Ever since the Paris peace talks and the reports by the various national and international committees, the Bulgarian government has denied the accusations. As the years have passed, the crimes have largely been forgotten.


https://balkaninsight.com/2019/04/12/serbia-under-bulgarian-occupation-documenting-wwi-crimes/



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Re: Balkans in WW1
« Reply #49 on: Oct 26, 2019, 05:18:41 am »
 

Al Bundy

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